Favorable outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation
Shah GL, DeWolf S, Lee YJ, Tamar R, Dah PB, Lavery JA, Ruiz J, Devlin SM, Cho C, Peled JU, Politikos I, Scordo M, Babady NE, Jain T, Vardhana SA, Daniyan A, Sauter CS, Barker JN, Giralt SA, Goss C, Maslak P, Hohl TM, Kamboj M, Ramanathan L, van den Brink MR, Papadopoulos E, Papanicolaou G, Perales MA.
J Clin Invest. 2020 Dec 1;130(12):6656-6667. PMID: 32897885
Understanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.
METHODS. We retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.
RESULTS. We identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.
CONCLUSION. In this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.